In this page we provide links to our data repository, publications, and working papers.



Data from the Madrid component of the project (n = 806) has been uploaded to the Universidad Carlos III de Madrid data repository. It is currrently under embargo and will become publicly available on 01/03/2027. Due to data protection provisions, data from the German component of the experiment cannot be made publicly available.

Link to dataset here.


Work in progress

Radl, J., Apascaratei, P., Foley, W., Kröger, L., Lorente, P.,  Palacios-Abad, A., Solga, H., Stuhler, J., & Swarr, M. (2024). How socioeconomic status shapes cognitive effort: A laboratory study among fifth graders. (Link to working paper)

Foley, W., & Radl, J. (2024). College material? whether children’s effort or ability drives parents’ educational expectations depends on socioeconomic background. (Link to working paper).

Lorente, P., Ruuskanen, V., Mathôt, S., Crespo, A., Radl, J. (2024). Baseline pupil size does not correlate with fluid intelligence: a laboratory study with children and adults. (Link to working paper)

Foley, W., & Radl, J. (2023).  A model of indirect crowding. (Link to working paper)

Apascaritei, P., Radl, J. & Swarr, M. (2023). Material incentives drive gender differences in cognitive effort among children. (Link to working paper)

Palacios-Abad, A., & Radl, J. (2023). Effort and dynamics of educational inequality: Evidence from a laboratory study among primary school children. (Link to working paper)


Peer-reviewed publications

Foley, W., & Radl, J. (2024).  Parenting practices and children’s cognitive effort: A laboratory study. The Journal of  Early Adolescence.

Radl, J., & Valdés, M.T. (2024). Month of birth and cognitive effort: a laboratory study of the relative age effect among fifth graders. Social Forces.

Apascaritei, P., Demel, S., & Radl, J. (2021). The Difference Between Saying and Doing: Comparing Subjective and Objective Measures of Effort Among Fifth GradersAmerican Behavioral Scientist.

Palacios-Abad, A. (2021). Strive to Succeed? The Role of Persistence in the Process of Educational Attainment. American Behavioral Scientist.

Radl, J., & Miller, L. (2021). Conceptual and Methodological Considerations on Effort: An Interdisciplinary Approach. American Behavioral Scientist.


Book chapters

Kröger, L.Palacios-Abad, A., & Radl, J. (forthcoming): “Non-cognitive Skills and Intergenerational Inequality: Reviewing the Power of Personality”. In: Jil Blanden, Jani Erola, Elina Kilpi-Jakonen, Lindsey Macmillan (Eds.). Research Handbook on Intergenerational Inequality. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.


Special issue of American Behaviour Scientist

Jonas Radl and Luis Miller served as guest editors for a Special Issue of the American Behaviour Scientist on “Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Effort: Measurement, Causes and Consequences”. Here are further articles from the issue, besides those listed above, which may be of interest:


Aguiar, F., Álvarez, M., & Miller, L. (2021). Locus of Control and the Acknowledgment of Effort. American Behavioral Scientist.

Bortolotti, S., Dohmen, T., Lehmann, H., Meyer, F., Pignatti, N.,  & Torosyan, K. (2021). Patience, Cognitive Abilities, and Cognitive Effort: Survey and Experimental Evidence From a Developing Country. American Behavioral Scientist.

De Dreu, C. K. W., Gërxhani, K., & Schram, A. (2021). Anticipating Peer Ranking Causes Hormonal Adaptations That Benefit Cognitive Performance. American Behavioral Scientist.

Gil-Hernández, C. J. (2021). The (Unequal) Interplay Between Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills in Early Educational AttainmentAmerican Behavioral Scientist.

Holtmann, A. C., Menze, L., & Solga, H. (2021). Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: How Important Are Children’s Personality Characteristics?. American Behavioral Scientist.